Students must know how to observe the opportunities and capacities of human communities, understand where new or existing ideas or systems could bring value within those communities, and be able to act effectively in order to drive sustained and positive change to provide that value.

Long form of term name:
Self-Agency and the Ability to Innovate and Take Risks

Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 

Validated for university students. Using a computerized tool, participants are asked to inflate a balloon on the computer screen. Each click that inflates the balloon accrues $0.05 in a bank visible on the screen. Participants are free to “collect the money” at any point, until the balloon pops, at which point all money accrued goes back to $0.00 and a new balloon appears. Participants get 10 balloons, and the total amount of money collected is reported at the end.

Creative Self-Efficacy Scale

Validated 8-item instrument for undergraduate students, using a 5-point scale (Strongly Disagree—Strongly Agree). Sample items include:

  • “I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for myself in a creative way.”
  • “I am confident that I can perform creatively on many different tasks.”

Feasibility Flowchart

Score 0-10 given by a reviewer ; 3-level flowchart:
Q1. Is it technically feasible? 
(no = 0; yes = Q2)
Q2. Is it technically difficult for the context? 
(no = Q3; yes = 4)
Q3. Is it an existing solution?
(no = 7; yes = 10)"

See Figure 2 in link below

Career Decision Making Survey – Self-Authorship (CDMS-SA) 

Validated 18-item instrument for university students, but not yet validated for pretest/posttest outcomes, using a 4-point scale (Disagree—Agree). Sample items include:

  • “The most important role of an effective career counselor or advisor is to be an expert on a variety of career options.”
  • “In my opinion, the most important role of an effective counselor or advisor is to direct students to information that will help them to make a decision on their own.”"

Self-Authorship Survey (SAS) 

Validated 24-item instrument for university students, using a 5-point scale (Disagree—Agree). Sample items include:

  • “I tend to make decisions based on what people I admire think is best, even if it isn’t always what I think is best.”
  • “When I set a goal for myself, I’m pretty sure I’m going to be able to achieve it.” 


Free-writing exercise, self-portrait, and interview; participants asked to describe themselves, the role(s) others play in their lives, and how they acquire knowledge:

  • “What elements make you who you are and why are those elements most important to describe you?”