Maryland State Department of Education
Call on students randomly.
Not just those with raised hands.
Two minutes of think time, two minutes discussion with a partner, then open up the class to discussion.
Remember "wait time."
Ten to twenty seconds following a higher-level question.
Why? Do you agree? Can you elaborate? Tell me more. Can you give an example?
Respond to students in a non-evaluative fashion.
Ask for a summary (to promote active listening).
"Could you please summarize John's point?"
Survey the class.
"How many people agree with the author's point of view?" ("thumbs up, thumbs down")
Allow students to call on other students.
"Richard, will you please call on someone else to respond?"
Play Devil's advocate.
Require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view.
Ask students to think about their thinking.
"Describe how you arrived at your answer." ("think aloud")
Encourage the students to develop their own questions.
Cue student responses.
"There is not a single correct answer for this question. I want you to consider alternatives."
Developed by the Language and Learning Improvement Branch. 1989. Division of Instruction, Maryland State Department of Education.